Therefore, a mutation in a pleiotropic gene may have an effect on several traits simultaneously due to the gene coding for a product used by a myriad of cells or different targets that have the same signaling function. Oversett denne siden How does the mutation of one gene cause a disease with many different symptoms? Although we often assume that a single gene produces only a single phenotype, the more likely situation is that single genes in fact influence multiple phenotypes.
This situation is referred to as pleiotropy. Many examples of pleiotropy have . Lethal alleles: alleles that prevent survival when homozygous or heterozygous.
There are many different mutations that occur during growth in organisms. Many times, these mutations can be passed on and will occur in such a way. Mutation in this type of gene will simultaneously affect more than one trait. An example is phenylketonuria, a human disease caused by mutation(s) in a single gene that codes for the enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase. It has long played a central role in theoretical, experimental, and clinical research in genetics, development, molecular biology, evolution, and medicine.
In recent years, genomic techniques have brought data to bear on . Genome-wide association studies have identified many variants that each affects multiple traits, particularly across autoimmune diseases, cancers and neuropsychiatric disorders, suggesting that pleiotropic effects on human complex traits may be widespread. However, systematic detection of such effects .
A gene is the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. A single gene is made of a specific sequence of nitrogen molecules within a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA makes up chromosomes that are passed on . Pleiotropic Effects and Lethal Genes. Genes vary widely in their degree of pleiotropy , but this variation is often considered a by-product of their evolutionary history.
The gray- coated mouse . We present a functional theory of how pleiotropy may itself evolve. We have known for decades that pleiotropy is widespread because in plant and animal breeding, and in laboratory selection experiments, when selection is applied to one trait, the mean of other traits also changes . This genetics lecture explains what is pleiotropy and the role of peiotropy in genetics. Antagonistic pleiotropy refers to a gene that has a mixture of beneficial and detrimental phenotypic effects. For more information, log. Definition of pleiotropy – the production by a single gene of two or more apparently unrelated effects.
Англо-русский словарь по иммунологии. In vertebrates, melanin-based coloration is often associated with variation in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose that this association stems from pleiotropic effects of the genes regulating the synthesis of brown to black eumelanin.
Modular structures in biological networks are ubiquitous and well- describe yet this organization does not capture the complexity of genes individually influencing many modules. First, it is assumed that a particular gene may have an effect not only on one trait, but on several traits of an organism ( pleiotropy ).
English dictionary definition of pleiotropy.