The nutrient-rich upwelled water stimulates the growth and reproduction of primary producers such as . Bufret Lignende Oversett denne siden Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water then rises up from beneath the surface to replace the water that was pushed away. This process is known as “ upwelling.

The reverse process, called “downwelling,” also occurs when wind causes . Upwelling occurs in the open ocean and along coastlines.

During upwelling , wind-displaced surface waters are replaced by col nutrient- rich water that wells up from below. Vogel, El Niño and Climate Prediction. When the wind blows parallel to a . Satie Airame, Science Advisor Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary.

Winds powerfully affect the oceans and are an important force in creating currents. Under normal conditions (top), these interfaces are shallow enough that coastal winds can induce upwelling of the lower-layer nutrients to the surface, where they support an abundant ecosystem. During an El Niño event (bottom), the upper layer thickens so that the upwelled water contains fewer nutrients, thus contributing . Chapter 3: the Global Conveyor described how water sinks in the North Atlantic to depth, beginning a journey through the deep ocean that lasts hundreds of years.

You may now wonder how the deep water comes back to the surface.

This happens in locations where the flow of the surface currents makes room . One oceanic process altered during an El Niño year is upwelling , which is the rising of deeper colder water to shallower depths. The diagram below shows how upwelling occurs along the coast of Peru. Where Ekman transport moves surface waters away from the coast, surface waters are replaced by water that wells up from below in the process known as upwelling.

This example is from the Northern Hemisphere. In some coastal areas of the ocean (and large lakes such as the North American Great Lakes), the . This adds to the productivity of the sea around Galapagos. Flavor: Freyalise promised a dawn that would never en a day of limitless life. As many dread her promise as revere it. It happens naturally when the wind pushes water away from an area, and the deep water comes up from below to replace it.

Due to the Coriolis effect, the surface current is generally not in the same . Where winds and surface currents are moving along a coastline, they draw the surface water away from the coast. The surface waters are replaced by waters from below by the upwelling described earlier. This is shown in the figure below.

Diagram to show coastal currents and the way they . In areas of upwelling , deep ocean water makes its way to the surface. The wind causes the water at the ocean surface to move perpendicular to it, away from the coast, because of a process called Ekman transport. When surface water moves away from the coast, water from deeper in the ocean rises up and takes .